Why does the information lifecycle matter?
Well, it can affect whether or not you'll be able to find any information about a topic!
If your topic is very current, you might only be able to find first-person accounts (interviews or tweets, for example), or newspaper articles. If you need more in-depth analysis, or an expert's considered analysis, though, it might be too soon for anything to be published - those author are busy collecting information and doing their own research - they just haven't had time yet!
Consider: How current does your information need to be? Do you need really up-to-date research?
What kind of information is likely to have been produced about your topic? Has enough time passed?
Informational sources can be classified roughly into three groups - primary, secondary, and tertiary - that reflect their originality. These groups are defined generally below.
Primary sources are original, uninterpreted information.
Unedited, firsthand access to words, images, or objects created by persons directly involved in an activity or event or speaking directly for a group. This is information before it has been analyzed, interpreted, commented upon, spun, or repackaged. Depending upon the context, these may include research reports, sales receipts, speeches, e-mails, original artwork, manuscripts, photos, diaries, personal letters, spoken stories/tales/interviews, diplomatic records, etc.
Think of physical evidence or eyewitness testimony in a court trial.
Secondary sources interpret, analyze, or summarize.
Commentary upon, or analysis of, events, ideas, or primary sources. Because they are often written significantly after events by parties not directly involved but who have special expertise, they may provide historical context or critical perspectives. Examples are scholarly books, journals, magazines, criticism, interpretations, and so forth.
Think of a lawyer's final summation or jury discussion in a court trial.
Tertiary sources compile, index, or organize sources.
Sources which analyzed, compiled and digest secondary sources included mostly in abstracts, bibliographies, handbooks, encyclopedias, indexes, chronologies, etc.
Think of an index that lists all the cases heard by this court during the year.
In the humanities and social sciences, primary sources are the direct evidence or first-hand accounts of events without secondary analysis or interpretation. A primary source is a work that was created or written contemporary with the period or subject being studied. Secondary sources analyze or interpret historical events or creative works.
A primary source is an original document containing firsthand information about a topic. Different fields of study may use different types of primary sources.
A secondary source contains commentary on or discussion about a primary source. The most important feature of secondary sources is that they offer an interpretation of information gathered from primary sources.
A tertiary source presents summaries or condensed versions of materials, usually with references back to the primary and/or secondary sources. They can be a good place to look up facts or get a general overview of a subject, but they rarely contain original material.
|Art||Painting||Critical review of the painting||Encyclopedia article on the artist|
|History||Civil War diary||Book on a Civil War Battle||List of battle sites|
|Literature||Novel or poem||Essay about themes in the work||Biography of the author|
|Political science||Geneva Convention||Article about prisoners of war||Chronology of treaties|
Adapted from lib.vt.edu
In the sciences, primary sources are documents written by the person(s) who conducted the original research. For example, a primary source would be a research article where scientists describe their methodology, results, and conclusions about the genetics of tobacco plants. A secondary source would be an article commenting or analyzing the scientists' research on tobacco.
These sources are where the results of original research are usually first published in the sciences. This makes them the best source of information on cutting edge topics. However the new ideas presented may not be fully refined or validated yet.
These sources tend to summarize the existing state of knowledge in a field at the time of publication. Secondary sources are useful places to learn about your topic in depth. They are useful places to find comparisons of different ideas and theories and to see how they may have changed over time.
These types of sources present condensed material, generally with references back to the primary and/or secondary literature. They can be a good place to look up data or to get an overview of a subject, but they rarely contain original material.
|Agriculture||Primary Research article paper on dairy microbiology||Review article on the current state of dairy microbiology||Encyclopedia article on dairy microbiology|
|Chemistry||Chemical patent||Book about organic chemical reactions||Handbook of related organic reactions|
|Physics||Conference proceeding on high energy physics||A book about the current state of the field of high energy physics||Dictionary of high energy physics|
Before starting your research, it's good to know how information is produced, where it comes from, and how it changes over time.
The Information Lifecycle is the progression of media coverage of a particular newsworthy event. Knowing about the information cycle will help you to better know what information is available on your topic and better evaluate information sources covering that topic.
The Day of an Event
Television, Social Media, and the Web
The Day After an Event
The Week or Weeks After an Event
Weekly Popular Magazines and New Magazines
Six Months to a Year or More After an Event
Academic, Scholarly Journals
A Year to Years After an Event
(Source: Digital Literacy, 2010)
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