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APA Citations - 7th Edition — In-Text Citations

In-Text Citations

APA uses the author-date citation system to cite references in the text. The in-text citation appears within the body of the paper (or in a table, figure, footnote, or appendix) and briefly identifies the cited work by its author and date of publication. It allows the readers to locate the corresponding entry in the reference list at the end of the paper.

In-text citations have two formats: parenthetical and narrative. In parenthetical citations, the author name and publication date, separated by a comma, appear in parentheses. In narrative citations, the author name appears in running text and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name.

Parenthetical Citation

Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public’s perception of expert consensus on an issue (Koehler, 2016).

Narrative Citation

Koehler (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.

Correspondence between a Reference List Entry and an In-Text Citation

Reference list entry:  Alexander, P. A. (2018). Past as prologue. Educational psychology’s legacy and progeny. Journal of Education Psychology, 110(2), 147-162.

Parenthetical citation: (Alexander, 2018)

Narrative citation:  Alexander (2018)